The European Commission (DG Competition) commissioned an international consortium led by E.CA Economics with a background study on State aid in the field of environmental protection and energy. The consortium consists of E.CA Economics, DIW Berlin, LEAR, University of East Anglia and Sheppard Mullin. The results of the study will support the Commission in the revision of the EU Guidelines on State aid for environmental protection and energy (EEAG) as well as the respective parts of the General Block Exemption Regulation (GBER). The study will assist the Commission in updating the Guidelines to ensure that they are fit-for-purpose, taking into account the general State aid modernisation objectives and the recent regulatory developments (notably the Clean Energy Package, Clean Mobility Package and Circular Economy Package), and that they facilitate the implementation of the European Green Deal. The revision of the Guidelines will also take into account the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Member States economies and their funding capabilities together with the deployment of the Recovery Plan for Europe.